Corporate tax avoidance: una rassegna della letteratura internazionale


This paper provides a survey of the literature on corporate tax avoidance – that is, any legal method whose intent is to minimize the amount of income taxes owed by a firm – with a focus on developments over the last two decades. In the survey, I analyze key contributions, outline the theoretical framework for links among studies, and summarize the metrics developed by prior literature to measure corporate tax avoidance. Finally, I provide an overview of areas in which our understanding is still limited and further research is needed. 


  • ALEXANDER, A., JACOB, M. 2016. “Executive inside debt and corporate tax avoidance”, SSRN working paper.
  • ALLINGHAM M. G., SANDMO, A. 1972. “Income tax evasion: A theoretical analysis”, Journal of Public Economics, 1(3/4), 323–338.
  • AMADUZZI, A. 1963. L’azienda nel suo Sistema e nell’ordine delle sue rilevazioni, Utet, Torino.
  • ARMSTRONG, C. S., BLOUIN, J. L., LARCKER, D. F. 2012. “The incentives for tax planning”, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 53 (1/2), 391–411.
  • ATWOOD, T. J., DRAKE, M. S., MYERS, J. N., MYERS, L. A. 2012. “Home country tax system characteristics and corporate tax avoidance: International evidence”, The Accounting Review, 87, 1831–1860.
  • BADERTSCHER, B. A., KATZ, S. P., REGO, S. O. 2013. “The separation of ownership and control and corporate tax avoidance”, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 56 (2/3), 228–250.
  • BADERTSCHER, B. A., KATZ, S. P., REGO, S. O., WILSON, R. J. 2019. “Conforming tax avoidance and capital market pressure”, The Accounting Review, 94(6), 1-30.
  • BAUER, A. M. 2016. “Tax avoidance and the implications of weak internal controls”, Contemporary Accounting Research, 33 (2), 449–486.
  • BEASLEY, M. S., GOLDMAN, N. C., LEWELLEN, C., MCALLISTER, M. 2020. “Board risk oversight and corporate tax-planning practices”, Journal of Management Accounting Research (in corso di pubblicazione).
  • BECKER, G. S. 1968. “Crime and punishment: An economic approach”, Journal of Political Economy, 76(2), 169–217.
  • BRUNE, A., THOMSEN, M., WATRIN, C. 2019. “Family firm heterogeneity and tax avoidance: the role of the founder”, Family Business Review, 32 (3), 296-317.
  • CHAN, K., H., LAN MO, P. L., TANG, T. 2016. “Tax avoidance and tunneling: empirical analysis from an agency perspective”, Journal of International Accounting Research, 15(3), 49–66.
  • CHEN, S., CHEN, X., CHENG, Q., SHEVLIN, T. 2010. “Are family firms more tax aggressive than non-family firms?” Journal of Financial Economics, 95 (1), 41–61.
  • CHEN, K., CHU, C. 2005. “Internal control versus external manipulation: A model of corporate income tax evasion”, The Rand Journal of Economics, 36(1), 151–164.
  • CHI, S., HUANG, S., SANCHEZ, J. M. 2017. “CEO inside debt incentives and corporate tax sheltering”, Journal of Accounting Research, 55(4), 837–876.
  • CHRISTENSEN, D. M., DHALIWAL, D. S., BOIVIE, S., GRAFFIN, S. D. 2015. “Top management conservatism and corporate risk strategies: evidence from managers’ personal political orientation and corporate tax avoidance”, Strategic Management Journal 36 (12), 1918–1938.
  • CHYZ, J. A. 2013. “Personally tax aggressive executives and corporate tax sheltering”, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 56 (2/3), 311–328.
  • CROCKER, K., SLEMROD, J. 2005. “Corporate tax evasion with agency costs”, Journal of Public Economics, 89, 1593–1610.
  • DE SIMONE, L. 2016. “Does a common set of accounting standards affect tax-motivated income shifting for multinational firms?” Journal of Accounting and Economics, 61 (1), 145–165.
  • DE SIMONE, L., EGE, M. S., STOMBERG, B. 2015. “Internal control quality: The role of auditor-provided tax services”, The Accounting Review, 90 (4), 1469–1496.
  • DESAI, M. 2003. “The divergence between book income and tax income”, in Poterba, J. (Ed.), Tax Policy and the Economy, 17, MIT Press, Cambridge, 169–206.
  • DESAI, M., DHARMAPALA, D. 2006. “Corporate tax avoidance and high-powered incentives”, Journal of Financial Economics, 79, 145–179.
  • DESAI, M., DHARMAPALA, D. 2008. “Tax and corporate governance: an economic approach”, in Schön, W. (Ed.), Tax and Corporate Governance, Springer, Munich, 13–30.
  • DESAI, M., DHARMAPALA, D. 2009. “Earnings management, corporate tax shelters, and book–tax alignment”, National Tax Journal, 62(1), 169–186.
  • DESAI, M., DYCK, I., ZINGALES, L. 2007. “Theft and taxes”, Journal of Financial Economics, 84, 591–623.
  • DESAI, M., FOLEY, C.F., HINES, J.R. 2006. “The demand for tax haven operations”, Journal of Public Economics, 90(3), 513–531.
  • DHARMAPALA, D. 2020. “Do multinational firms use tax havens to the detriment of other countries?” SSRN working paper.
  • DOBRIDGE, C., LESTER, R., WHITTEN, A. 2021. “IPOs and corporate tax planning”, working paper.
  • DONOHOE, M., MCGILL, G., OUTSLAY, E. 2014. “Risky business: the prosopography of corporate tax planning”, National Tax Journal, 67 (4), 851–874.
  • DUNBAR, A., HIGGINS, D. M., PHILLIPS, J. D., PLESKO, G. A. 2010. “What do measures of tax aggressiveness measure?” Working paper.
  • DYRENG, S. D., MAYDEW, E. L. 2017. “Virtual issue on tax research published in the journal of accounting research”, Journal of Accounting Research, 56 (2), 311.
  • DYRENG, S. D., HANLON, M., MAYDEW, E. L. 2008. “Long-run corporate tax avoidance”, The Accounting Review, 83(1), 61–82.
  • DYRENG, S. D., HANLON, M., MAYDEW, E. L. 2010. “The effects of executives on corporate tax avoidance”, The Accounting Review, 85 (4), 1163–1189.
  • DYRENG, S. D., HOOPES, J. L., WILDE, J. H. 2016. “Public pressure and corporate tax behavior”, Journal of Accounting Research, 54 (1), 147–186.
  • DYRENG, S. D., LINDSEY, B. P. 2009. “Using financial accounting data to examine the effect of foreign operations located in tax havens and other countries on U.S. multinational firms’ tax rates”, Journal of Accounting Research, 47(5), 1283–1316.
  • DYRENG, S. D., LINDSEY, B. P., MARKLE, K. S., SHACKELFORD, D. A. 2015. “The effect of tax and nontax country characteristics on the global equity supply chains of U.S. multinationals”, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 59 (2/3), 182–202.
  • FELLER, A., SCHANZ, D. 2017. “The three hurdles of tax planning: how business context, aims of tax planning, and tax manager power affect tax expense”, Contemporary Accounting Research, 34 (1), 494–524.
  • FRANCIS, B. B., HASAN, I., WU, Q., YAN, M. 2014. “Are female CFOs less tax aggressive? Evidence from tax aggressiveness”, The Journal of the American Taxation Association, 36 (2), 171–202.
  • FRANK, M., LYNCH, L., REGO, S. 2009. “Tax reporting aggressiveness and its relation to aggressive financial reporting”, The Accounting Review, 84, 467–496.
  • FRISCHMANN, P., SHEVLIN, T., WILSON, R. J. 2008. “Economic consequences of increasing the conformity in accounting for uncertain tax benefits”, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 46, 261–278.
  • GAERTNER, F. B. 2014. “CEO after-tax compensation incentives and corporate tax avoidance”, Contemporary Accounting Research, 31 (4), 1077–1102.
  • GALLEMORE, J., LABRO, E. 2015. “The importance of the internal information environment for tax avoidance”, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 60 (1), 149–167.
  • GALLEMORE, J., MAYDEW, E. L., THORNOCK, J. R. 2014. “The reputational costs of tax avoidance”, Contemporary Accounting Research, 31(4), 1103–1133.
  • GRAHAM, J. R., HANLON, M., SHEVLIN, T., SHROFF, N. 2014. “Incentives for tax planning and avoidance: evidence from the field”, The Accounting Review, 89 (3), 991–1023.
  • HANLON, M., HEITZMAN, S. 2010. “A review of tax research”, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 50(2/3), 127–178.
  • HANLON, M., SHEVLIN, T. 2005. “Book-tax conformity for corporate income: an introduction to the issues”, Tax Policy and the Economy, 19, 101–134.
  • HIGGINS, D., OMER, T. C., PHILLIPS, J. D. 2015. “The influence of a firm’s business strategy on its tax aggressiveness”, Contemporary Accounting Research, 32 (2), 674–702.
  • HOI, C. K., WU, Q., ZHANG, H. 2013. “Is corporate social responsibility (CSR) associated with tax avoidance? Evidence from irresponsible CSR activities”, The Accounting Review, 88(6), 2025–2059.
  • HOOPES, J. L., MESCALL, D., PITTMAN, J. A. 2012. “Do IRS audits deter corporate tax avoidance?” The Accounting Review, 87 (5), 1603–1639.
  • JONES, J. 1991. “Earnings management during import relief investigations”, Journal of Accounting Research, 29, 193–228.
  • KOESTER, A., SHEVLIN, T., WANGERIN, D. 2017. “The role of managerial ability in corporate tax avoidance”, Management Science, 63 (10), 3285–3310.
  • KUBICK, T. R., LYNCH, D. P., MAYBERRY, M. A., OMER, T. C. 2015. “Product market power and tax avoidance: market leaders, mimicking strategies, and stock returns”, The Accounting Review, 90 (2), 675–702.
  • KUBICK, T. R., LYNCH, D. P., MAYBERRY, M. A., OMER, T. C. 2016. “The effects of regulatory scrutiny on tax avoidance: An examination of SEC comment letters”, The Accounting Review, 91 (6), 1751–1780.
  • LISOWSKY, P., ROBINSON, L., SCHMIDT, A. 2010. “An examination of FIN 48: tax shelters, auditor independence, and corporate governance”, Working Paper, University of Illinois.
  • LUPI R. 1994. “L’elusione come strumentalizzazione delle regole fiscali”, Rassegna Tributaria, 226.
  • LUPI R. 1995. “Elusione fiscale: modifiche normative e prime sviste interpretative”, Rassegna Tributaria, 409.
  • MANZON, G., PLESKO, G. 2002. “The relation between financial and tax reporting measures of income”, Tax Law Review, 55, 175.
  • MCCLURE, C. 2020. “How costly is tax avoidance? Evidence from structural estimation”, SSRN working paper.
  • MCGUIRE, S. T., WANG, D., WILSON, R. J. 2014. “Dual class ownership and tax avoidance”, The Accounting Review, 89 (4), 1487–1516.
  • MILLS, L. 1998. “Book-tax differences and Internal Revenue Service adjustments”, Journal of Accounting Research, 36 (2), 343–356.
  • MILLS, L., ERICKSON, M. M., MAYDEW, E. L. 1998. “Investments in tax planning”, The Journal of the American Taxation Association, 20 (1), 1–20.
  • MILLS, L. F., NEWBERRY, K. J. 2001. “The influence of tax and nontax costs on book-tax reporting differences: Public and private firms”, The Journal of the American Taxation Association, 23 (1), 1–19.
  • MILLS, L., PLESKO, G. 2003. “Bridging the reporting gap: a proposal for more informative reconciling of book and tax income”, National Tax Journal, 56, 865–893.
  • ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 2008. Study into the role of tax intermediaries, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 2013a. Addressing base erosion and profit shifting, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 2013b. Tax administration 2013. Comparative information on OECD and other advanced and emerging economies, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 2013c. Co-operative compliance - a framework. from enhanced relationship to cooperative compliance, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 2015. Measuring and monitoring BEPS, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • ORGANISATION FOR ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT, 2020. Tax policy reforms 2020. OECD and selected partner economies, OECD Publishing, Paris.
  • PHILLIPS, J. D. 2003. “Corporate tax-planning effectiveness: the role of compensation-based incentives”, The Accounting Review, 78 (3), 847–874.
  • POWERS, K., ROBINSON, J. R., STOMBERG, B. 2016. “How do CEO incentives effect corporate tax planning and financial reporting of income taxes?” Review of Accounting Studies, 21 (2), 672–710.
  • REGO, S. O. 2003. “Tax-avoidance activities of U.S. multinational corporations”, Contemporary Accounting Research, 20 (4), 805–833.
  • ROBINSON, J. R., SIKES, S. A., WEAVER, C. D. 2010. “Performance measurement of corporate tax departments”, The Accounting Review, 85 (3), 1035–1064.
  • SCHOLES, M. S., WOLFSON, M. A. 1992. Taxes and Business Strategy: A Planning Approach, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs.
  • SCHWAB, C., STOMBERG, B., WILLIAMS, B. 2021. “Effective tax planning”, The Accounting Review (in corso di pubblicazione).
  • SHACKELFORD, D. A., SHEVLIN, T. 2001. “Empirical tax research in accounting”, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 31 (1/3), 321–387.
  • SHEVLIN, T. 2002. “Commentary: corporate tax shelters and book-tax differences”, Tax Law Review, 55, 427–443.
  • SLEMROD, J. 2004. “The economics of corporate tax selfishness”, National Tax Journal, 57, 877–899.
  • SLEMROD, J., YITZHAKI, S. 2002. “Tax avoidance, evasion, and administration”, in Auerbach, A., Feldstein, M. (Eds.), Handbook of Public Economics, Vol. 3. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1423–1470.
  • WILDE, J. H., WILSON, R. J. 2018. “Perspectives on corporate tax planning: Observations from the past decade”, Journal of American Taxation Association, 40(2), 63–81.
  • WILSON, R. 2009. “An examination of corporate tax shelter participants”, The Accounting Review, 84, 969–999.
  • YIN, G. 2003. “How much tax do large public corporations pay? Estimating the effective tax rates of the S&P 500”, Virginia Law Review, 89.
  • ZIMMERMAN, J. L. 1983. “Taxes and firm size”, Journal of Accounting and Economics, 5, 119–149.
Chiudi [X]

Acquista l'articolo

Inserisci i tuoi dati affinché un funzionario di Giuffrè possa contattarti per perfezionare i termini dell’acquisto

Campi obbligatori*


👤  Antonio De Vito